Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

Following are the factors which affects the enzyme activity:

1. Concentration of substrate

2. Temperature

3. PH

4. Water

5. Radiation and many more too.

Concentration of substrate

It is directly proportional to the enzyme. There are two factors which may
affects the rate of enzyme reaction.

a. Higher concentration of substrate

b. Accumulation of end product

The rate of reaction increases with an increase in the concentration of
substrate until the available enzyme becomes saturated with substrate, and
furthermore if the products got attached more there so it would affect too.

Effects of Temperature

Enzymes are very sensitive to temperature. The temperature on which an
enzyme works efficiently is called as to be optimum. The normal body
temperature is 37°C and whereas they are completely destroyed at 100°C. in
short, the minimum temperature may affect the rate of reaction but at very
high temperature may denotive/breaks off enzyme. The main point is that
except of all this at 0°C the enzyme just reduces its activity but are not

Effects of PH

Every enzyme has a specific pH and every enzyme works at its marked optimum
pH, like as the enzyme pepsin which is in inactive in neutral or alkaline


It is that it may destroy the enzyme coz as said that the enzymes are
sensitive in nature so they rapidly inactivated whenever got in touch of
ultraviolet light and also to β rays, γ rays and X-rays, b/c they alter the
shape of protein (enzyme).

Effects of Water

All enzymes work in aqueous solution, so therefore the water is the most
necessary need for enzyme activity or for any enzymatic reaction. The
enzymes got more active in water.

Cp-enzymes, activators and Inhibitors:

The substances have been divided in three categories which frequently
accelerate or inhibit the enzyme action.

a. Co-enzyme:

When the prosthetic group is an organic molecule the it is said to be
co-enzyme and without co-enzyme certain enzymes are unable to perform their
function. i.e. CoA, NAD, FAD etc.

b. Activator:

It is the inorganic molecules which increase the rate of activity of the
enzyme. i.e. Magnesium is an inorganic activator for the enzyme phosphate.

c. Inhibitors:

These are the substance which decrease the activity of an enzyme are known
as inhibitors. The Competitive inhibitors reduce the productivity of enzyme
by blocking the substance form entering into the active site.
Non-competitive inhibitors obstruct enzymatic reactions by binding to a
part of the enzyme away from the active site.

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